This is a revision of the earlier AMF draft. This earlier draft is available in HTML, and in PDF format for US letter size paper and for A4 size paper.
This version is only available in HTML. It fixes errors in the description of the previous version and updates references to external developments. But it makes no substantive changes. It is written in XHTML 1.0 strict with machine-parsability in mind.
This document is a draft for the Academic Metadata Format (AMF). AMF encodes descriptions of
AMF is not definite and may change at any moment. Despite the fact
that it has been stable since early 2001, the current specification is
provided as a basis for experimental deployment only. During this
time, the draft standard's files are maintained at
Work on the AMF has aimed to support the Open Archives Initiative by providing a richer metadata format than unqualified Dublin Core that is specialized in the scholarly communications area and that is directly usable with the OAI public metadata harvesting protocol. This implies two constraints on AMF.
The remainder of the document is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces the general markup of AMF. Section 3 describes the names and semantics of elements used by AMF. Section 4 discusses constraints on the contents of elements. Such value constraints are indicated by the use of italics in the description of element semantics in Section 3. Section 5 presents presents optional attributes that may be useful to further qualify element contents. Section gives examples.
AMF is encoded in XML. All element names used by AMF use lowercase letters only.
The AMF data enclosed in an element that has the
amf. It is called the AMF root element.
AMF is an open vocabulary in the sense that the AMF XML schema allows to place elements from foreign vocabularies within the AMF vocabulary. This can be done on the root level of the AMF element, or in any child contents of that root element. Foreign element names must be namespace qualified.
<amf> element is the root element
in an XML document, such a file can be called an AMF document.
In the example,
text is a "noun" element. The AMF
root element must contain one or more nouns. Nouns are
repeatable. There are four nouns:
persona physical person
organizationan entity that has physical persons as its members
collectiona dctype:collection of resources
Each instance of a noun element in AMF data that is not an empty element is called an AMF record. All child elements of AMF records are optional and repeatable. An AMF record admits two types of child elements.
titleis an adjective.
person noun element describes or refers to a physical person
"> ...adjectives and verbs...
organization noun element describes or refers to an organization. An
organization is a group of two or more persons
"> ...adjectives and verbs...
Both nouns accept the same verbs and adjectives. Therefore they will be collectively referred to as the "p/o" noun in the remainder of this document.
<name>unstructured full name, as vCard:FN
<shortname>short name e.g. IMF, as vCard:NickName
<familyname>full name, as vCard:N;FamilyName
<givenname>given name, as vCard:N;GivenName
<additionalname>additional name, as vCard:N;AdditionalName
<nameprefix>honorary prefix, as vCard:N;HonoraryPrefix
<date>date associated with the p/o, as dc:date
<homepage>URL of homepage
<postal>postal address as vCard:LABEL
<phone>telephone number as vCard:TEL;TYPE=pref,voice
<fax>fax number vCard:TEL;TYPE=pref,fax
<email>email as vCard:EMAIL;TYPE=internet,pref
<identifier>for the p/o from a scheme that external to the AMF data set, as dc:identifier
<iseditorof>as dc:creator or dc:contributor
<ispublisherof>in the sense of dc:publisher
<ispublisherof>in the sense of dc:publisher
The text noun element describes or refers to a text, independent of
its status. Thus a PhD thesis, an article in a learned journal, the
transcript of a speech etc, are all texts
"> ...adjectives and verbs...
A journal is not a text, it is a collection. A book may also be a collection if it contains papers by different authors.
<keywords>list of uncontrolled keywords, may be subject to a scheme vocabulary to be developed
<classification>list of classification codes ???
<copyright>a plain-text statement about the copyright, as dc:rights
<status>a plain-text description of the status of the text, say published in a journal,presented at a conference etc.
<comment>something about the text that is not the status, e.g. a dedication
<email>email for the text, not necessarily one of the authors or editors
<date>date associated with the text
<displaypage>URL of a page where access to the text is explained
<citation>unstructured full text of citation
<serial>container element for structured serial access information that
<journaltitle>title of serial, as OpenURL:title,dccite:journaltitle
<journalabbreviatedtitle>abbreviated title of serial, as OpenURL:stitle, asdcite:journalabbreviatedtitle
<journalidentifier>identifier (usually ISSN) of journal,as dccite:journalidentifier
<issuedate>date on the serial issue cover, as OpenURL:date,as dccite:cronology
<volume>as OpenURL:volume, as dccite:volume
<part>as OpenURL:part, as dcite:number
<issue>as OpenURL:issue, as dcite:number
<season>season of publication (spring or summer or autumn or winter),as OpenURL:ssn, as dcite:cronology
<quarter>quarter of publication (1 or 2 or 3 or 4), as OpenURL:quarter, as dcite:cronology
<startpage>number of the first page of the text in the serial issue, as OpenURL:spage
<endpage>number of the last page of the text in the serial issue, as OpenURL:epage
<pages>unstructured page data, as OpenURL:pages, as dccite:pagination
<articlenumber>article number, in the absence of pagination, as OpenURL:artnum
<file>a container for full-text file information; it may be repeated for each component file.
<url>URL for the file itself
<function>the function of the file in the text, e.g. main text, appendix
<format>same as dc:format, encoded in Internet Media Types, see IANA (2001)
<restriction>text that explains access to the file, as dc:rights
<file>a container for a reference made by the text
<literal>text of reference
<context>to context of the citation
<type>a text type
<haspublisher>in the sense of dc:publisher
<isreferencedby>for example cited by another, as dcq:isReferencedBy text
<references>e.g. cites another text, as dcq:references
<isversionof>points to an earlier text that current text is developed from, as dcq:isVersionOf
<hasversion>points to a later text developed from the current text, as dcq:hasVersion
<isformatof>points to an original text with the same intellectual contents in a different format, as dcq:isFormatOf
<hasformat>points to a derived text with the same intellectual contents in a different format, as dcq:hasFormat
<ispartof> a text belongs to a collection, as dcq:isPartOf
The collection noun element is used whenever statements about a set of several texts are being made. This can be a classification collection, (i.e. all the texts that have the subject classification code), a serial, the papers presented at a conference etc.:
<title> same as a journal title, conference title etc.
<abbreviatedtitle> abbreviation, e.g. PRL
<description> a plain text description of the collection, as dc:description
<homepage> URL for humans to read more about the collection
<accesspoint> URL for machines to access the collection
<type> a collection type
<identifier> an identifier for the collection from a scheme that doesnot use AMF, as dc:identifier
<isreplacedby> as dcq:isReplacedBy
<replaces> as dcq:replaces
<ispartof> as dcq:isPartOf
<haspart> as dcq:hasPart
<haspart> as dcq:haspart
<haspublisher> in the sense of dc:publisher
<hasmaintainer> p/o who maintain metadata about the collection
The values of some of the elements are restricted. These content types are listed here.
date adjective is of the form
where  encloses optional components.
For details, see the date type definition of XML Schema.
The value must be a valid Uniform Resource Locator.
The value must be a valid email address.
The collection noun covers a wide variety of things in AMF. It is useful to indicate the type of a collection through a controlled vocabulary.
|| a classification scheme
|| a series of texts
|| an archive of documents
The text noun covers a wide variety of things in AMF. It is useful to indicate the type of a text through a controlled vocabulary.
|| as OpenURL:article
|| also covers working papers and technical reports,
||as OpenURL:bookitem|| as OpenURL:preprint
All AMF records (i.e. non-empty nouns) may have an
attribute. There are no value constraints for this attribute. If a
value is set for a particular record, it is assumed that within the
scope of a collection of AMF records, the record is uniquely
identified by the value of this attribute.
Any noun—be it empty or not—may carry a
attribute. If it is present, its value is identical to the
attribute of another record. AMF
ref attributes may be resolved
to records that have the appropriate identifiers. The details of the
resolution algorithm are outside the scope of AMF.
All verbs admit two additional attributes:
until. The values of these attributes must be of the type date.
These attributes indicate a time span for which the relationship
holds. The dates are inclusive. Example:
<iseditorof from="1999-01-01" until="2000-01-01"> ...
All adjective elements have an optional attribute called
xml:lang. It takes the same syntax as in the XML 1.0
specification. It uses values for
xml:lang from http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xml-2e-20000814#sec-lang-tag.
As a general rule, the
lang attribute refers to the value of the
element content. For example
<title lang="fr"> Robin des
Bois<title> does not mean that the text is a French translation of
the adventures of Robin Hood.
There are natural exceptions to this rule. For example, if the
lang attribute appears at an adjective that is constrained to
contain a URL, it means that text that is found at the URL is written
in that language.
All date elements may have an optional attribute
event that indicates what happened on the date. The
admissible values are
|| text was first written, as dcq:created
or person was born, as vCard:BDAY
|| date where a person
was alive or a resource is available, as dcq:available
|| the formal publication date
of a text, as dcq:issued
|| the date a resource
was changed, as as dcq:modified
keyword attributes may
have an xsi:type attribute. In that case, controlled values
for the value have been registered with AMF. The AMF Controlled
vocabulary document lists all the controlled vocabularies.
None of the following examples is fictitious. However, the description of the items that is made through the examples may not be complete, to conserve space.
<amf> <text id="bible"> <title id="Bible">The Holy Bible</title> </text> <text> <title>The book of Genesis</title> <ispartof> <text ref="bible"/> </ispartof> </text> </amf>
<amf> <organization id="RePEc:edi:oecddfr"> <name lang="en">Organization for Economic Development and Cooperation</name> <shortname lang="en">OECD</shortname> <name lang="fr">Organisation de Cooperation de Develloppement Economiques</name> <shortname lang="fr">OCDE</shortname> <homepage lang="en">http://www.oecd.org/</homepage> <homepage lang="fr">http://www.oecd.org/index-fr.htm</homepage> <haspart> <organization ref="RePEc:edi:edoecfr"> <ispublisherof> <collection ref="RePEc:oed:oecdec"> <haspart> <text> <hasauthor> <person ref="RePEc:per:1956-06-20:GIUSEPPE_NICOLETTI"/> </hasauthor> <title> REGULATION IN SERVICES: OECD PATTERNS AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS </title> <abstract> The paper looks at patterns of regulation in service industries and explores their implications for service performance. </abstract> <abstract lang="fr"> Cette étude analyse les approches règlementaires dans les secteurs des services et explore leurs implications pour les performances sectorielles dans les pays de l'OCDE. </abstract> <file> <url>http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/2001doc.nsf/linkto/eco-wkp(2001)13</url> <format>application/pdf</format> </file> </text> </haspart> </collection> </ispublisherof> </organization> </haspart> </organization> </amf>
<amf> <collection id="csfhrd"> <title>Classification Scheme for Human Rights Documentation</title> <homepage>http://www.huridocs.org/clasengl.htm<homepage> <haseditor> <person> <name>Ivana Caccia</name> <email>ica
email@example.com</email> </person> </haseditor> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.10"> <title>natural justice</title></collection> </collection> </haspart> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.20"> <title>universality / relativism</title> </collection> </haspart> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.30"> <title>philosophy & human rights </title> </collection> </haspart> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.40"> <title> political theories & human rights </title> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.41"> <title>democracy</title> </collection> </haspart> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.42"> <title>liberalism</title> </collection> </haspart> <haspart> <collection id="csfhrd:GEN II.45"> <title>marxism</title> </collection> </haspart> </haspart> </collection> </haspart> </collection> </amf>